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Jada Smith

Hello Class and Professor,

Variables are the elements tested in an experiment to prove a hypothesis correct or incorrect. In an experiment, there are two different types of variables one that is used to manipulate the conditions to test out the theory. While the other is used to measure the progress or regress of the object being tested. These two variables are called an independent and dependent variables.

The independent variable is the variable the is manipulated in the experiment and is usually created by the experimenter. Independent variables can also be called treatments, manipulations, interventions, and conditions. Sometimes this could be things like noises, lighting, or other things in the physical environment. Not only can independent variables be manipulations in the physical environment, but I can be things like psychological states for example if the hypothesis was “How do different amounts of tv affect a person’s mood?” the independent variable would be the amounts of tv. The independent variable is not affected by anything that happens in the experiment. In every experiment, you need to compare two different treatment conditions so in the experiment presented above we would need to compare two or more amounts of time these would be called levels of independent variables. The variable that would determine if the independent variable worked, would be called the dependent variable. The dependent variable is what the experimenter expects to change because of their experimental treatment. For example, if the experiment was “How well do different plant species tolerate saltwater?” the dependent variables would be the plant growth, plant wilting, and the plant survival rate. The dependent variable can also be known as the measures, effects, outcomes, and results of an experiment. Independent and dependent variables are like a cause and an effect of the experiment the dependent variable can be affected either negatively or positively by the independent variable.

WC: 307

Bernstein, D., & Penner, L. (2021). Experimental Psychology 7th edition by Myers, Anne; Hansen, Christine H. published by Wadsworth Publishing Hardcover (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.



Good evening Professor Vosmik and fellow classmates,

The independent variable is an aspect of the experiment that will be manipulated in order to demonstrate a change with the venture that is taken. Within the experiment, the subjects tested will undergo research and development as the experiment progresses. There are also levels of the independent variable which are decided by the experimenter by creating circumstances that are different. For example if you conduct research or perhaps an experiment with testing which soda will allow plants to grow, the type of soda that is used would be considered a level of the independent variable. You could use regular coke, sprite, orange or grape soda. “In a true experiment, we test the effects of a manipulated independent variable- not the effects of the different kinds of subjects” (page 194).

The dependent variable however is the aspect of the experiment that you are ultimately further researching and testing. This item will more than likely be a consistent factor throughout the experiment. In reference to the example used while describing the independent variable, the dependent variable would be the type of plant that is consistently used throughout the experiment. It is understood that if various independent variables display a change within the dependent variable, then the hypothesis is proven to be valid.

Word count: 220

Citation: Myers, A., & Hansen, C. H. (2012). Experimental psychology, 7th ed. Wadsworth Cengage, .

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