1. What is the background of Heraclitus’ obscure style? 2. Heraclitus was called the “obscure”. Answer by quoting some of Heraclitus’ fragments.
3. According to Heraclitus, how do we acquire knowledge? Answer by quoting some of Heraclitus’ fragments. 4. What does Heraclitus mean by saying that the logos is the basic law of the universe? 5. What is the difference between the “extreme” and the “moderate” view of change? Which one is closer to Heraclitus’ view? 6. Outline Heraclitus’ account of the soul.
7. Outline the difficulties presented by the example of the ship of Theseus. 8. Parmenides argues that the only way that it can be investigated is the one that “it is”. Outline Parmenides’ argument by carefully presenting and explaining its different steps. 9. What motivates Parmenides to reach the conclusion that change does not exist? 10. Outline the major features of the Sophistic movement. 11. Explain the features and importance of the education system introduced by the Sophists. 12. In the Encomium of Helen Gorgias gives a demonstration of the power of speech. Why does he believe that speech is such an effective weapon? 13. Outline the different steps through which Gorgias defends Helen in the Encomium of Helen 14. Analyze the Anonymous Iamblichi by examining its (i) title, (ii) literary genre, (iii) content, and (iv) goal 15. Analyze the main features of the Sophists’ theory of society. 16. Outlines the main features of the nature (physis) law/custom (nomos) debate. 17. What was the Sophists’ attitude towards religion and the gods? 18. In which sense is philosophy was a way of life for Socrates? 19. What are the main sources from which we can understand Socrates’ life and thought?